Wednesday, January 16, 2013


This is the Desktop. It is a folder just like any other and it can be manipulated to contain whatever the administrator requires for each user.
Desktop and My Documents
The My Documents Folder is the default destination for a user’s work. It can be placed, separately from the desktop, on any server in the network.
In this guise it can still appear to the user as what is known as a local resource!
In another course would-be administrators will move home folders to remote servers. They will also have a good reason for doing so.

Thursday, January 10, 2013


Clicking on START is a recommended way to access frequently used applications:
Clicking on START reveals the Run option which provides a quick way of launching  command-line utilities.
The first few characters of a pathname have been typed and the auto-complete feature uses this to make suggestions based upon recent usage. Clicking on one of these completes the entry. This can be useful to avoid mistyping.
The Start Menu can also be easily configured by simply right-clicking on it and selecting Properties.
Icon sizes can be changed as well as the number of program shortcuts displayed. Select Advanced to view a few in depth options.
Various items can be enabled and disabled by choosing the options shown, e.g. The Control Panel can be disabled from the Start Menu.
To change the Start Menu to the style used in Windows 2000 select Classic Start Menu.
Clicking on Start reveals the older style Start Menu used in pre-Windows XP computers.

Friday, January 4, 2013

Managing Files And Folders

These are some typical file icons. They help the user to identify the file type. There are innumerable file types, some of the common ones are represented here:
  1. .bmp – a bitmap image
  2. .doc – a Word document
  3. .wav – a sound file
  4. .ppt  – animated slides
  5. .txt – plain text
  6. .xls – a spreadsheet
  7. .dbf – a database file
  8. A shortcut (note the arrow)
  9. .exe – an application (a program)
Windows allows you to view information about files in different ways. the icon view – the default used by Windows XP.
To change the icon view, click on View on the menu bar. Select the required view from the available list.
By default if a file type is a  known one, such as a Microsoft Word Document, Windows won’t display its file extension. To view all file extensions click on Tools on the menu bar.
Various options can be configured. e.g. Display compressed files and folders with alternate colours. To display all file extensions, untick the Hide file extensions for known file types box.
File extensions are best left alone. Opening a file with the wrong application can sometimes damage the file. However you may at some stage need to change a file’s extension.

Each of these is a folder. They may contain files or other folders (called subfolders) or both. There may be many “nestings” of folders within folders.
Managing Files And Folders
Files and folders are located on the computer by using a file path. The “James” folder is located inside a folder called “Home”, which is located inside a folder called “es-net”, which is located on the “C:” drive. The file path will be “C:\es-net\Home\James”.

Moving and Copying

To move a file or folder, either right click on its icon OR left click on the Edit  option on the toolbar. Choose cut to move or copy to copy!
At this point the item has been placed onto a clipboard – an area of memory accessible from nearly any application in Windows. Right click (or open Edit in the toolbar) in an open destination folder and choose “Paste” (or use drag and drop) .
When  an attempt is made to move an item between volumes, it is effectively copied, and the original remains.

Creating Files and Folders

This is mercifully easy. Simply right-click on some empty space in any suitable folder or the desktop and choose to create a new object from the choices offered.
Be careful not to alter the file extension, as this can render the file unreadable. File extensions are usually hidden for this reason.

Friday, December 28, 2012



There several things you should be aware of concerning password security.
Passwords (can be and) are often written down by users who have trouble remembering them. Passwords are also more and more stored electronically, on PDAs or mobile phones. Do not leave passwords recorded anywhere for others to find.
Social engineering and Phishing scams
These scams can trick a user to disclose the password, just by asking the password in some way (e.g. a so called helpdesk-person calling).
Passwords can be intercepted by key-loggers (hardware or software) and then transmitted to other people.
Shoulder surfing:
refers to using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone’s shoulder, to get information. Shoulder surfing is particularly effective in crowded places because it is relatively easy to observe someone as they:
  • Fill out a form
  • Enter their PIN at a cash machine or a POS terminal
  • Use a calling card at a public pay phone
  • Enter passwords at a cybercafe, public and university libraries, or airport kiosks.
  • Enter a code for a rented locker in a public place such as a swimming pool or airport
Shoulder surfing can also be done at a distance using binoculars or other vision-enhancing devices. Inexpensive, miniature closed-circuit television cameras can be concealed in ceilings, walls or fixtures to observe data entry. To prevent shoulder surfing, it is advised to shield paperwork or the keypad from view by using one’s body or cupping one’s hand.
Passwords can be cracked, especially if they are short (although short is a relative concept, taken into account the increased computing power available today).
Passwords can be guessed, e.g. if no strong password policy is enforced.
To counter guessing, quite simply, the passwords need to be made as long and as complex as is practicable. Be significantly different from your previous passwords. Not contain your own name or user name. (Nor the name of spouse, children, pets etc.)
Have at least one symbol character in the second through sixth positions.
Packet Sniffing:
Passwords can be sniffed, intercepted when in transit between a PC and a server (e.g. on the Internet)
Packet sniffing is the monitoring of data traffic on a computer network. Computers communicate over the Internet  by breaking up messages (emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc.) into small chunks called “packets”, which are routed through a network of computers, until they reach their destination, where they are assembled back into a complete “message” again. Packet sniffers are programs that intercept these packets as they are travelling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs. A packet sniffer is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. That is it gathers “messages” but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean.
Passwords can be reset (which is often easier than cracking a password). If you have created a password restore disk for your computer always ensure that it is stored safely. Anyone can use this disk to reset your password. No matter how many times you have changed your password since the disk was created.
Password Best Practice
You should not include personal information in your password, such as your birthday, the name of your dog, favourite sports team, etc.
  • Use as many characters as possible; the longer the password, the harder it is to crack.
  • Phrases are better then passwords, e.g. ‘Your company is #No1′
  • Do not use dictionary words in any language
  • Do not use easily guessed patterns (1234,1bcd, qwerty, etc)
  • Use a mix of upper and lower case letters, numbers and special characters
  • Change your password as often as possible.


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This is the Desktop. It is a folder just like any other and it can be manipulated to contain whatever the administrator requires for each ...